Notably, male exhibited aggression at a lower level in a high than low salinity, and this overall difference was mostly driven by a lower level of aggression after having encountered a female potential mate under high salinity conditions Fig.
The extent of the TSP varies a little among species,  and development within the oviducts must be taken into account in species where the embryo is at a relatively late stage of development on egg laying e. Specifically, despite the known metabolic costs of higher salinity levels on desert gobies [ 40 ], males performed courtship behaviours unaffected by salinity.
Sexual displays and aggression often entail similar costs [ 9 ], such as loss of energy [ 10 — 14 ], time taken from other activities [ 15 ], and increased predation risk [ 16 — 18 ]. Sih A. Environmental Sex Determination. Printer-friendly version PDF version. The turtles were incubated at temperatures that produce solely males, both sexes, and solely females.
Download citation. They did so to test the predictions of the Charnov-Bull model. Washington: Smithsonian Books, Pieau C, Dorizzi M Oestrogens and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles: all is in the gonads.
Estrogen and sex reversal in turtles: a dose-dependent phenomenon. Sign up for Nature Briefing. Eggs from painted turtles Chrysemys picta were incubated at 28 degrees C.
High temperatures produce males in lizards and crocodiles but females in chelonians. We assessed how both male courtship displays and male-male aggression are affected by salinity a key environmental factor for many aquatic species and recent social encounter with either a rival or potential mate.
We offer the following, mutually non-exclusive hypotheses for this result. Also, experiments conducted at the pivotal temperature, where temperature is equivocal in its influence, have demonstrated an underlying genetic predisposition to be one sex or the other.