Violence can harm a child through direct injury, causing placental damage, premature contractions, membrane rupture, or fetal death, 5 — 9 or through indirect mechanisms such as stress, substance abuse, or abuse-related maternal health problems.
Overall, Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines on Domestic Violence. View author publications.
Anyone currently in an abusive relationship will feel stressed, drained, and unsupported, and these feelings may very well make it difficult for a woman to be physically and emotionally available for the intense relationship created by breastfeeding.
Ann Emerg Med. Referral of women to adjunct social services, parenting support groups, and substance abuse interventions and integration of these types of support with prenatal, postpartum, and pediatric care are also critical. Position Statement on Violence Against Women.
Peer Review reports. Pregnant adolescents: experiences and behaviors associated with physical assault by an intimate partner. Information on adult physical violence was taken from Q1 and consisted of a positive answer as to whether women as adults had experienced being slapped, hit, kicked or otherwise physically assaulted.
Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type: physical, sexual and psychological battering. However, other studies have noted the association between sexual violence and a range of somatic health problems in predominantly non-pregnant women [ 715 — 184445 ]. Published : 11 August
Participation involved considerable effort and had no immediate benefits for the women taking part. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening. Second, we used longitudinal data to determine whether risks were higher during or after pregnancy and to characterize patterns of physical and sexual violence across time.
A history of sexual violence has been associated with a wide range of psychological and physical complaints as well as medical diagnoses including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, somatization disorders, chronic pain such as headaches, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia and pelvic pain, gastro-intestinal symptoms and sexually transmitted diseases [ 8 , 15 — 18 ].